WHITE PAPER ON NUCLEAR ENERGY
Atomic Energy Commission
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- Chapter 1 : Coexistence of Nuclear Energy and People
- 1. Stronger Demands for a Clearer Reflection of Public Opinion in Nuclear Policy
- 2. Holding on the Round Table Conferences on Nuclear Policy
- 3. Various Efforts Toward "the Coexistence of Nuclear Energy and People"
- 4. For the Attainment of "the Coexistence of Nuclear Energy and People"
- Chapter 2 : Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Japan and Overseas
- 1. Establishment of International Trust Regarding Nuclear Non-Proliferation
- 2. Safety Assurance
- 3. Promotion of Information Disclosure and Public Understanding
- 4. Present and Future of Nuclear Power Generation
- 5. Nuclear Power Generation Using Light Water Reactors
- 6. Promotion of Nuclear Fuel Recycling
- 7. Backend Policies
- 8. Diversified Development and Reinforcement of Basic Research on Nuclear Science and Technology
- 9. International Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Energy
- 10. Basis for Promotion of the Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy
- 11. Future of the Nuclear Industry
Chapter 1 : Coexistence of Nuclear Energy and People
Because Japan has scant energy resources, it depends on other countries for more than eighty percent of its energy demand. Looking at the annual global consumption of primary energy, one sees that it has shot up from only about 100 million toe (ton equivalent of oil) around the middle of last century to about 8 billion toe in 1990. If the consumption of fossil fuels, which are not only very convenient but also the geological products of the earth, continues at the present frantic pace, they are expected to be depleted in just a few hundred years, but an instant in the history of the earth.
Therefore, the energy problem should be considered not only from a domestic viewpoint of energy supply and demand but also a global one considering the historical point of view.
As a result of the development and utilization of nuclear energy based on the major principle of strictly adhering to a policy of peaceful use and assuring safety, Japanese nuclear power generation has come to account for about thirty percent of this country's total electricity.
Japan's main strategy is to secure a table energy supply through the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle. That is, besides securing a stable supply of uranium resources, recover the newly produced plutonium and residual uranium in the spent fuel for the sake of efficient utilization of uranium resources (nuclear fuel recycling).
The sodium leakage of the fast breeder prototype reactor "Monju" in December 1995, however, has again raised anxiety about nuclear policy.
Needless to say, it is important that people living in this country be reassured and have their minds at ease about the development and utilization of nuclear energy. The government has been making efforts in that regard, but still they have not been entirely sufficient. Taking the recent rise in uneasiness among the public concerning nuclear policy, the government has decided to take active measures to cope with it, and new steps have already been taken for the formation of a nationwide consensus concerning nuclear policies.
1. Stronger Demands for a Clearer Reflection of Public Opinion in Nuclear Policy
(1) Sodium Leakage Accident in the Secondary Heat Transfer System of "Monju"
The sodium leakage accident at the fast breeder prototype reactor "Monju" on December 8, 1995, resulted in a rise in uneasiness among the Japanese people about nuclear policy.
The sodium leakage occurred in the secondary heat transfer system which does not directly pass through the core of the reactor. Therefore, the radioactive materials did not affect on the environment and the employees. In other words, from the standpoint of disaster prevention, the safety of the nuclear reactor facility was not impaired.
Nevertheless, sodium leakage did occur, and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation(PNC), the entity which installed the "Monju" reactor, handled the accident information inadequately. This caused, unfortunately, considerable concern among the public throughout the country.
Currently, the Nuclear Safety Commission(NSC) and the Science and Technology Agency(STA) are undertaking a thorough investigation of the causes of the accident and general safety inspection of the plant.
1/ Containment vessel
2/ Reactor vessel
4/ Intermediate heat exchanger
5/ Control rods
7/ Primary heat transfer system (reactor coolant system)
8/ Secondary heat transfer system (intermediate coolant system)
9/ Primary main pump
10/ Secondary main pump
11/ Super heater
12/ Steam water system (steam)
16/ To discharge channel
17/ Cooling water (sea water)
19/ Feed water pump
20/ Place of leakage
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of Fast Breeder Prototype Reactor "Monju"
1/ January 5, 1996
. State of adhesion of sodium around
. State of burnout of preheater
2/ December 9, 1995
Sodium at grating
Fig. 2 Sodium Leakage in the Fast Breeder Prototype Reactor "Monju"
(2) Requests Arising after the "Monju" Accident
After the "Monju" accident, various requests concerning such matters as ensuring the safety of the reactor were submitted to the government. In particular, in January 1996 a document entitled "Suggestions Regarding the Future Conduct of Nuclear Policy" was submitted by the governors of the three prefectures Fukui, Fukushima and Niigata, where large numbers of nuclear power plants are located.
In response to the document, the government announced a policy statement entitled "Toward the Formation of a National Consensus Concerning Nuclear Policy," on March 15, which indicates its intention to redouble its efforts to seek a nationwide consensus on nuclear policy.
Table. 1 "Toward the Formation of a National Consensus Concerning Nuclear Policy"(Outline)
"Toward the Formation of a National Consensus Concerning Nuclear Policy"
1. Basic idea
○ Efforts to form a nationwide consensus
○ Active actions of the government.
2. Orientations of Specific Efforts
○ Organizing of "Round Table Conference on Nuclear Policy" (Atomic
Energy Commission : AEC)
○ Holding of symposiums and similar events (Science and Technology Agency :
STA and Ministry of International Trade and Industry : MITI)
○ Holding of regional and local forums (STA / MITI)
○ Exchanges of views with related external organizations (STA / MITI)
○ Increase in the number of Nuclear Energy Monitors (STA)
3. Reflection of the nuclear policy
○ Explaining present nuclear policy in easily understandable terms and identifying
ideas to be incorporated in future policy
○ Further study, if needed, to proceed with specific tasks (the Atomic Energy Commission :
AEC, STA, MITI, the Advisory Committee for Energy etc.)
(3) General Situations of the Siting of Nuclear Facilities
Among the new developments relating to siting of nuclear facilities is the incorporation of a new nuclear power plant (NPP) site in the government's Power Supply Development Basic Plan for the first time in ten years (the No. 1 reactor of the Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd.'s Higashidori NPP).
On the other hand, in a local referendum concerning construction of a NPP at
Maki-Machi, Niigata Prefecture, held on August 4, 1996, the opposition vote was
in the majority.
In any case, it is clear that redoubled efforts by all those concerned are necessary to enhance public understanding of the development and utilization of nuclear energy.
2. Holding of the Round Table Conferences on Nuclear Policy
(1) Establishment and Holding of the Round Table Conferences on Nuclear Policy
With the mediation of moderators, RTCs have provided the occasion for discussions concerning various areas of nuclear energy between members of AEC and individuals from the various invited circles. These meetings were entirely open, and the minutes and other related information are available through the Internet ("Announcements From the AEC" in STA's home page (http://www.sta.go.jp/).
In the period April-September 1996, eleven round table sessions were held. These sessions were open to the public and participants were drawn from a wide range of people in different fields, including experts, mayors of local governments, individual critics of nuclear development and persons selected from the general public who expressed a particular desire to participate in the RTC. The results of the debate were summarized by the moderators.
Fig. 3 10th Round Table Conference on Nuclear Policy (in Tsuruga)
(2) The Discussions of the RTC
In the first four RTC sessions, the discussion was unstructured, without any particular themes, so as to make it possible for all matters concerning nuclear development to be raised for consideration.
The actual discussions that resulted from those four sessions were then analyzed and classified into four fields, and the following seven sessions took up these fields for detailed discussion.
The round table discussions resulted not only in the recommendation set by the moderators asking for the promotion of information disclosure concerning nuclear development and of the public participation in the policy making process, but also in general suggestions by the moderators after all the discussion.
Table. 2 Main Discussions of the First Four RTC Sessions
Main Discussions of the First Four RTC Sessions
- Nuclear energy and society, particularly technical safety and mind of the public.
○ Relations between nuclear development and human culture and society
○ Nuclear safety (technical safety, trouble and accidents, disaster prevention,
○ Psychological and sociological safety such as the public's "peace of mind"
- Energy in general and nuclear energy
○ Global energy situation
○ Relationship of energy supply / demand, life styles and the socioeconomic
○ Relationship between the global environment and energy supply / demand
○ Energy saving and new energy
○ Significance of nuclear energy
○ Selection of energy sources
- Nuclear energy and nuclear fuel recycling
○ Selection of energy sources from the viewpoint of the relationship between nuclear
energy and human culture and society
○ Nuclear policy regarding the significance of nuclear energy
○ Significance of nuclear development as an integrated science and technology
○ Significance and outlook of nuclear fuel recycling, reprocessing, fast breeder
reactors, use of plutonium and backend policies particularly treatment and disposal
of high-level radioactive waste
- Relationship between nuclear development and society
○ Relations between nuclear development and human culture and society
○ Safety and peace of mind in local communities
○ Promotion of regional development, relationship between areas where electric
power generation sources are located and those in which electric power is consumed
○ Role of education, public relations activities, mass media
○ Information disclosure, participation of the people in the policy making process
Fig. 4 Submission of Recommendations by the Moderators of
Round Table Conference on Nuclear Policy (Oct. 3, 1996)
(3) AEC's Response to the Recommendations of the Moderators for Future Incorporation in Nuclear Policy
The recommendation made by the moderators on June 24. 1996, asked the AEC to take the necessary steps for information disclosure and for the participation of the public in the decision making process. This was followed on Oct. 3 by the submission to AEC of recommendations by the moderators based on the discussions at the eleven RTC sessions.
After deliberate considerations, AEC responded to these recommendations by announcing a policy statement, and as a result, such measures as opening the doors of the Commission's expert subcommittee sessions to the public and asking the general public to express their written opinions on the draft reports prepared by its expert subcommittees have already been put into effect.
Table.3 AEC's Decisions Responding to the Recommendations of the Moderators
AEC's Decisions Responding to the Recommendations of the Moderators (Summary)
1. Promotion of information disclosure and the participation of the public in the policy making process concerning nuclear development
○ Inviting the general public to comment on the draft reports prepared by expert subcommittees of AEC
○ Opening the expert subcommittee meetings to the public
○ Making the necessary arrangements in coordination with the competent
administrative authorities to make it possible to respond to the requests of the
public asking for information on nuclear development
2. Clear identification of nuclear energy in the total energy supply
○ Establishment of various kinds of forums for discussions from many different
viewpoints, including further holding of new RTCs
○ Promotion of further study by the Advisory Committee for Energy and further
efforts on the part of competent administrative authorities
3. Development of the nuclear fuel cycle
Awaring the importance of the development of the nuclear fuel cycle, (i.e. reprocessing of spent fuel for the reuse of the products obtained thereby,) in view of Japan's resource limitations and environmental protection, various measures will be implemented as follows:
1) Management of spent fuel
○ Seeking realistic and rational solutions as soon as possible considering the findings
of the Advisory Committee for Energy and the opinion of the competent
administrative authorities and the local governments involved
2) Use of plutonium in light water reactors
○ Urgent definition of the purpose and specific measures for plutonium use taking
into account the findings of the Advisory Committee for Energy and making efforts
in coordination with the competent administrative authorities toward the formation
of a nationwide consensus
3) Fast breeder reactors
○ Working to ascertain the causes of the "Monju" accident and sure
implementation of its general safety inspection
○ Establishment of a "Fast Breeder Reactor Discussion Group" (tentative)
4) Backend measures including handling of high-level radioactive waste
○ Early formulation of specific disposal measures on the basis of the discussion in
such forums as the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy and
the Special Committee on High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Presentation of
the measures to the general public in an easily understandable manner
4. Ensuring Nuclear Safety and the Establishment of Disaster Prevention
○ Redoubled efforts to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities
○ Strengthening the work of the competent administrative authorities to establish
effective disaster prevention measures with a clear definition of the individual roles
and coordination between the competent administrative authorities
5. Strengthening of coordination with the areas where nuclear facilities are located
○ Establishment of principles for the government's dealing with areas where nuclear
facilities are located and furtherance of coordinated efforts within the government
for the promotion of regional development of such areas
○ Redoubling of efforts to promote information transfer and mutual understanding
between the national and local governments
○ Establishment of various kinds of forums for open dialogue with local residents of
such areas and people throughout the country, including the holding of new RTCs in
those areas, for the purpose of narrowing the gap in perception of nuclear energy
between the chief areas of consumption of electric power and areas where nuclear
power plants and related facilities are located
○ Promotion of exchanges and coordination within and among the competent
administrative authorities by holding symposiums, seminars, etc. with a view to
narrowing the gap in perception of nuclear energy between the chief areas of
consumption of electric power and areas where nuclear power plants and related
facilities are located
6. Further Holding of Round Table Conferences (RTC)
○ New RTCs with some modifications of management
3. Various Efforts Toward the Coexistence of Nuclear Energy and People
(1) Holding of Local Forums, Symposiums, etc.
Efforts to promote dialogue with the people and reflect their opinions in nuclear policy are being made by the government to promote the coexistence of nuclear energy and people. These efforts not only include holding RTCs but also staging events such as the "Forum on Nuclear Energy with the Minister of STA", "One-Day Forum of Agency of Natural Resources and Energy" and other local forums.
Fig. 5 Forum on Nuclear Energy with Minister of STA
Fig. 6 "Forum in Aomori"
Table 4 "Forum in Aomori" by Area and Frequency
(as of end of March 1996)
|Aomori City||5||Higashitsugaru County||6|
|Hirosaki City||3||Nishitsugaru County||11|
|Hachinohe City||3||Nakatsugaru County||2|
|Kuroishi City||2||Minamitsugaru County||8|
|Goshogawara City||3||Kitatsugaru County||7|
|Towada City||2||Kamikita County|
(except Rokkasho Village)
|Misawa City||3 |
|Mutsu City||3||Shimokita County||3|
|Rokkasho Village||14||Sannohe County||11|
|Total 101 (in 61 cities, towns and villages)|
2) Increase in the Number of Nuclear Energy Monitors
For some years now, the government has had a system of "nuclear energy monitors" to get frank opinion on the part of the general public with the intention of reflecting it in the nuclear policy. In 1996, the number of monitors was increased by 500 persons publicly selected from the general public, in addition to the monitors selected at the recommendation of the prefectural governments. In consequence, a total of 1074 persons have been selected as nuclear energy monitors.
The monitor opinions were summarized and reported to the RTC as supplementary information.
(3) Detailed Response to Doubts, Anxieties and Wishes Expressed by the General Public
The government is making every effort from the standpoint of the coexistence of nuclear energy and people to respond in detail to the specific wishes and doubts, expressed by the people. These responses include the arrangement of public lectures and tours of nuclear and related facilities.
4. Efforts Toward the Coexistence of Nuclear Energy and People
The efforts toward the coexistence of nuclear energy and people as set forth in the Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy (1994. AEC) are of an ongoing nature. As such, they will not be ended at some future stage, but will be continued in every way possible for still more active dialogue and for further promotion of information disclosure and the reflection of public opinion in the policy making process.
Chapter 2 : Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Japan and Overseas
1. Establishment of International Trust Regarding Nuclear Non-Proliferation
The maintenance and reinforcement of the international nuclear non-proliferation system is extremely important for the smooth promotion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and it is necessary to make efforts for the establishment of international trust regarding nuclear non-proliferation on the basis of the Non-Proliferation Treaty(NPT).
Japan is implementing "safeguards" and "physical protection of nuclear material" to ensure the peaceful use of all nuclear materials on the basis of the Safeguards Agreement concluded with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and bilateral atomic energy cooperation agreements with the U.S. and other countries.
Fig. 7 Joint Inspection by Japanese Government and IAEA as a Safeguard Measure
1/ (74 packagings)
2/ Fast breeder reactor and advanced thermal reactor
3/ MOX fuel fabrication facilities
4/ Reprocessing facilities
5/ (Breakdown by country exported to)
U.K., France, Total
6/ Power reactors
7/ Refining and conversion facilities
8/ Research reactors
9/ (Breakdown by country imported from)
10/ Uranium reconversion and fabrication facilities
11/ Uranium enrichment facilities
12/ Plutonium, Enriched uranium, Natural uranium,
Depleted uranium, Thorium, ( ) Number of fuel units
13/ Note 1: Since the movement of nuclear fuel materials in connection with useis very complex. Only those relating to MOX fuel fabrication facilities and refining and conversion facilities are shown.
Note 2: The figures on the inventories of the different facilities indicated the quantities as of December 31, 1995.
Fig. 8 Main Flow of Nuclear Fuel Materials Between Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in Japan (1995)
Table.5 Projection of Plutonium Supply and Demand in Japan
Table.6 Separated Plutonium of Japan
2. Safety Assurance
Safety assurance of nuclear energy is a major premise for Japan's development and utilization of nuclear energy. The safety of Japanese nuclear facilities is maintained at very high levels as an international standards through strict government safety regulations and by the unflagging efforts of the utilities and research and development organizations to improve safety. As a result, Japanese nuclear facilities have an enviable safety record.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) where safety research of backend measures is undertaken and used for safety research of criticality of reprocessing facilities
Fig. 9 Research of safety : TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility)
3. Promotion of Information Disclosure and Public Understanding
It is important to actively promote information disclosure so as to assure reliability and transparency and also promote public understanding of nuclear energy. To deepen this understanding, the government has drawn up a progress of PA (Public Acceptance) activities such as experience-type and participation-type.
Fig. 10 Sending of Lecturers in Response to Requests for Detailed Answers to Various Questions from the General Public
Fig. 11/ Museum of Future Science and Technology (Shinjuku, Tokyo)
Fig.12/ Home Page of "Genshiro" Electronic Library for Provision of Information by Internet (http://sta-atm.jst-c.go.jp)
4. Present and Future of Nuclear Power Generation
This section analyzes the present situation in Japan and abroad regarding nuclear power generation and presents its future outlook in Japan.
Table. 7 Nuclear Power Generating Capacity in Japan
(as of November 1996)
| ||Number. of|
(gross electric output)
|In operation||51||42,712,000 kW|
|Under construction||4||3,641,000 kW|
|In preparation||2||1,925,000 kW|
Fig. 13 No.6 Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power
Co., Inc., Which Started Commercial Operation in November 1996
Fig. 14 Steady Growth Over the Years of Annual Generated Output in Japan. In
FY1995, nuclear power generation accounted for 33.8% of the total electric
Table. 8 World Nuclear Power Generating Capacity
(as of end of December 1995)
(Form a survey by the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc.)
| ||Number of|
(gross electric output)
|In operation||432||362,320,000 kW|
|Under construction||51||43,730,000 kW|
|In planning||57||42,330,000 kW|
1/ The Japan Atomic Power Co.'s Tsuruga Power Station
2/ Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation's "Fugen"
3/ Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation's "Monju"
4/ The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Mihama Nuclear Power Station
5/ The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Takahama Power Station
6/ The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Ohi Power Station
7/ The Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Tomari Power Station
8/ Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Higashidori Nuclear Power Station
9/ Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Onagawa Nuclear Power Station
10/ Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Maki Nuclear Power Plant
11/ The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station
12/ The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station
13/ The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station
14/ The Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Shika Nuclear Power Plant
15/ The Japan Atomic Power Co.'s, Tokai Power Station
16/ The Japan Atomic Power Co.'s, Tokai No.2 Power Station
17/ The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Shimane Nuclear Power Station
18/ Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station
19/ Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Genkai Nuclear Power Station
20/ Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Ikata Nuclear Power Station
21/ Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.'s Sendai Nuclear Power Station
|Power generation reactors for commercial operation
■In operation 50 42,547,000 kw
▲Under construction 3 3,361,000 kw
|●In preparation 2 1,925,000 kw|
|Power generation reactors used for research and|
□In operation 1 165,000 kw
△Under construction 1 280,000 kw
| Total 55 46,353,000 kw
|| Total 2 1,925,000 kw|
Fig. 15 Locations of Nuclear Power Plant Sites in Japan (as of end of November 1996)
5. Nuclear Power Generation Using Light Water Reactors
For the development of light water reactor technology in future, it is necessary not only to work actively to achieve further safety assurance but also to strive for the greater sophistication of such technologies in terms of both design and operation. Furthermore, it is necessary to make every effort to secure uranium resources for the sake of ensuring the independence and stability of Japan's development and utilization of nuclear energy. The government is promoting the establishment of domestic enterprise in such fields as uranium enrichment, fabrication and other similar operations so as to ensure the independence of the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, while taking economic viability into account.
Table 9 World Uranium Reserves (as of Jan. 1, 1995)
(Unit: 1,000 t U)
|Country||Proven reserves *1|
|Adjusted total *2||4510|
Source: OECD/NEA, IAEA"URANIUM Resources, Production, Demand 1995"
*1: The figures on "proven reserves" given here are those for "known reserves" given in the
*2: The "adjusted total" is the total minus mining and refining losses.
Fig. 16 Uranium Enrichment Plant belonging to the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited at
Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. It has been Operating on a Scale of 600 t
SWU/Year since Day of Commissioning in March 1992
6. Promotion of Nuclear Fuel Recycling
Japan sees "Nuclear Fuel Recycling" as a basic nuclear policy (i.e. reprocessing of spent fuel and using the recovered plutonium) to ensure stable energy supply in future through the effective use of uranium resource and to reduce the environmental impact of radioactive waste. And for that purpose, development of technology is under steady progress.
Fig. 17 Reprocessing Plant belonging to the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, Under
Construction at Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and Scheduled to Be
Completed in January 2003
Fig. 18 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF)
Involved in research on criticality safety, advanced reprocessing proces
ses and other fields.
7. Backend Policies
The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (called "backend policies") are important and indispensable task in the development and utilization of nuclear energy. The present generation, which benefit from nuclear power generation, must accomplish these tasks in a responsible manner. At present, organized and active efforts are being made in line with the Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy.
Fig. 19 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited
at Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture
| The radioactive nuclides from vitrified units are prevented from affecting humans through conveyance by groundwater
Fig. 20 Multi- (Engineered and Natural) Barrier System for Ensuring the Long-Term
Safety of Vitrified Unit
Fig. 21 Inside the Waste Management Facility
8. Diversified Development and Reinforcement of Basic
Research on Nuclear Science and Technology
Nuclear technology has a wide range of applications, not only nuclear power generation by nuclear fission energy, but also energy from nuclear fusion, supply of heat by high-temperature gas reactors, ship propulsion power and the use of radiation. Various efforts, ranging from basic research to practical applications, will be made to meet the diversified and sophisticated needs of nuclear energy.
Fig. 22 World's Largest (8 billion electron-volt) Large-Scale Synchrotron Radiation
Facility (SPring-8), Scheduled for Commissioning in 1997
Fig. 23 JRRM-3 Building (left and right) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research
Institute, the Performance Has Been Enhanced Through Remodelling
Fig. 24 Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba. (HIMAC), Completed in 1994
at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences
Fig. 25 Improvement of Pear Species
A species of pear that is resistant to black leaf spot disease has been created by irradiation as an example of species improvement in the field of agriculture.
1/ Scientific Feasibility
2/ Engineering Feasibility
3/ Demonstration of Fusion Power Plant
5/ Large TOKAMAK
6/ Experimental Reactor ITER (International Joint Design)
7/ Feasibility of Nuclear Fusion Reactor Technologies. Nuclear Fusion Combustion Using Actual Fuel
8/ Prototype Reactor
9/ Nuclear Fusion Power Generation
10/ Demonstration Reactor
11/ Economic Feasibility
Fig. 26 Steps Towards the Practical Use of a Fusion Reactor
Diameter of device approx. 30 m|
Height approx. 20 m
Plasma main radius 8.1 m
Fusion power 1.5 GW
Burn time 1000 s
Plasma current 21 MA
Toroidal magnetic field 5.7 T
Fig. 27 Conceptual Diagram of ITER
9. International Cooperation in the Field of Nuclear Energy
It is important to actively promote international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to ensure high safety levels. Therefore, international cooperation will become more and more important. Japan has built close cooperative ties with the U.S. and five other countries by concluding bilateral agreements. It has also been actively involved in international cooperation such as research and development with other countries, development and utilization of nuclear energy with neighboring Asian countries and developing countries, and cooperation in safety assurance and in non-nuclear fields with the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
Fig. 28 Bilateral Cooperation
Testing of anomaly detection system using microphones (Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, Russia).
10. Basis for Promotion of the Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy
To further promote the development and utilization of nuclear energy in Japan, important tasks are the training and employment of talented personnel, the securing of funds, the definition of roles and the building of close ties between different research and development entities, and the promotion of research and development activities over a wide range from basic research to application in an planned and comprehensive manner.
Table10 Number of Technical Personnel Employed in the Nuclear Industry and
Nuclear Research Institutes
(as of March 1994)
Technical personnel employed in the nuclear industry
|Number of research workers and engineers in
government related research institutes and facilities
Table11 Summary of Funds Relating to Nuclear Energy
Government budget for nuclear energy|
for FY 1996 approx. 494.9 billion yen (+2.4%)
. Funds allocated to
Science and Technology Agency approx. 357.1 billion yen (+3.7%)
. Funds allocated to
Ministry of International Trade and Industry approx. 130.8 billion yen (-2.0%)
. Other allocations approx. 7.0 billion yen (+29.2%)
( ) : indicate the increase or decrease in comparison
with the year before.
Nuclear-energy related expenditures by industry
(actual figures for FY 1994)
Electricity utility industry approx. 1,912.6 billion yen
. Research and development expenditures approx. 53.3 billion yen
Mining and manufacturing industries approx. 1,969.6 billion yen
. Research and development expenditures approx. 72.2 billion yen
11. Future of the Nuclear Industry
The nuclear industry is divided into the electric power utilities and the nuclear supply industries which provide nuclear equipment, services, etc. The nuclear supply
industry is made up of diverse enterprises including nuclear equipment suppliers, nuclear fuel cycle utilities, nuclear software utilities, and nuclear service utilities.
The nuclear supply industry is an important element in the future development and utilization of nuclear energy. In view of the importance of securing highly qualified personnel such as engineers and skilled workers, it is necessary to continue the education, training and hiring of such personnel in an organized and planned manner.
Table 12 Nuclear Industry Groups in Japan
Ｎｏｔｅ：WH: Westinghouse (U.S.)
|Mitsui & Co.,
GE: General Electric Co.(U.S.)
GA: General Atomics Co.(U.S.)